Adverse Effect of Fat Intake on Insulin Sensitivity and Associated Risk of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD): A Review

Melese Temesgen


The objective of this review was to address long term intake of dietary fat result fat induced Insulin resistance and other non communicable diseases with reference to hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cancer, cholesterol and cardio vascular diseases. Dietary fats, or lipids, are a macronutrient class that includes fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Fatty acid quantity and quality also vary by their source, with important differences between meat, fish, and plant sources, as well as natural versus synthetic sources. This heterogeneity allows for food consumption choices to modulate the quantity and quality of fats that, in turn, influence metabolic and health outcomes. The dietary intake of fat has received considerable attention in the past few decades because of its link with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (for high intakes of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) and obesity (for a high intake of total fat). Currently, several lines of evidence indicate that the type of fat is more important in decreasing metabolic and CVD risk than the total amount of fat in the diet. The scientific evidence is clear that a high-fat diet relates to chronic health problems such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Therefore that, books, cookbooks, and magazine articles tout low-fat messages. Saturated fat or the bad fats are a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including heart disease and stroke through raising blood total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. On the other hand, the good fats or the unsaturated fats – monounsaturated fats, omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) and omega 6 polyunsaturated fats primarily protect against CVD through their effects on cholesterol i.e. lowering harmful LDL cholesterol and raising protective HDL cholesterol. Concerning Insulin sensitivity and resistance, it is important to understand TFA consumed during long periods could promote insulin resistance and have clinically relevant effects on diabetes risk. The reviews showed that Insulin resistance is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and thus, Insulin resistance (IR) is considered the key mechanism unifying obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Globalization and Immigration also have contribution to increased consumption of high-fat, energy-dense diets, particularly rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). All age groups and all regions are affected by NCDs. Children, adults and the elderly are all vulnerable to the risk factors that contribute to noncommunicable diseases, whether from unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, exposure to tobacco smoke or the effects of the harmful use of alcohol. The situation is double burden for low-income and middle-income countries and is the most remaining public problem. This clearly shows that there must be global action for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases focussing on healthy diet and physical activity as a public health priority.

Keywords: dietary fat, Insulin resistance, NCD and globalization

Full Text: PDF
Download the IISTE publication guideline!

To list your conference here. Please contact the administrator of this platform.

Paper submission email:

ISSN (Paper)2224-7181 ISSN (Online)2225-062X

Please add our address "" into your email contact list.

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright ©