Review on Small Ruminant Brucellosis in Ethiopia

Alebachew Tilahun


Diseases are among the many factors which limit the economic returns from small ruminants. One of the infectious diseases which particularly impedes international trade is brucellosis. Brucellosis in small ruminants is mainly caused by Brucella melitensis and B. ovis and in sporadic cases by B.abortus. This disease is mainly characterized by abortion with the development of yellowish, sticky layers on the placenta in females. In male animals, it causes orchitis, epididymitis, and arthritis in both sexes. Species of Brucella are obligate parasites, requiring an animal host for maintenance. Sexually mature and pregnant animals are more prone to Brucella infection. The primary route of dissemination of Brucella is the placenta, fetal fluids and vaginal discharges expelled by infected animal after abortion or full-term parturition. Brucella species can enter mammalian hosts through skin abrasions or cuts, the conjunctiva, the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract and through reproductive tracts. In active cases brucellosis of small ruminants can be diagnosed by isolation and identification of the responsible micro-organisms using bacteriological tests. Brucella can also be detected using molecular tests. Brucellosis is readily transmissible to humans, causing acute febrile illness, undulant fever which may progress to a more chronic form and can also produce serious complications affecting the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. Humans get infected mainly by drinking raw milk, exposure to aborted fetus, placenta of infected animals and by an occupational risk. Brucellosis presents a significant impediment to the economic potential of the large population of small ruminants such as reproductive and productive wastage and trade ban. Small-ruminant brucellosis has been shown to occur worldwide. Since brucellosis has no effective treatment, vaccination, test and slaughter, hygiene and awareness creation are the best control and prevention strategies.


Keywords: Brucellosis creation awareness, dissemination, test and slaughter, undulant fever

Full Text: PDF
Download the IISTE publication guideline!

To list your conference here. Please contact the administrator of this platform.

Paper submission email:

ISSN (Paper)2224-7181 ISSN (Online)2225-062X

Please add our address "" into your email contact list.

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright ©