A Review on Current Characteristics of Chicken Production System dynamics and Bio-security implications in Ethiopia

Atsbaha Hailemariam


The objective of this review paper was to investigate the current characteristics of chicken production system dynamics and bio-security implication in Ethiopia. According to the recent literature the current number of chicken in Ethiopia are above 65.87 million of which above 95% found to be native indigenous chickens while the rest below 5% could be cited as introduced exotic chickens. Plus, previously the chicken production systems in Ethiopia were classified in to three as small, medium and large scale while recently are classified into four production dynamics as small, medium, large and integrated large commercial scale production systems. Similarly, all most all of the large commercial and integrated are established in and around Addis Ababa the capital city of the country. Based on the United Nations estimate of 2017, the current Ethiopian population reached about 103,633,804 implying that there is a huge gap between the ratios (1:0.63) of number of chickens to the human population. Besides, the currently the egg and meat consumption in the country per capital per year respectively is 57 eggs and 2kg while the demand requirement has been explained to reach on average is 180 eggs and 10.8kg per year per capital to enhance the protein gaps in the country. In Ethiopia, the native chickens are not fully scientifically characterized except some by university scholars and some agricultural research centers even most of the native indigenous chicken characterization are with the emphasis of morphological characterization even though some indigenous chickens mentioned as molecularly characterized. Alternatively, in Ethiopia, the chicken bio-security measure levels vary with the type of production systems. In larger towns and metropolis the production systems are integrated and larger commercial scale types and some legitimated bio-security practices still expected to fully practice it in the near future if wholesome chicken meat and egg are in need of beneficiaries. However; in the small scale poultry production system there is almost no/minimal chicken bio-security measures taken even though the majority of the chickens in the country are found in the small scavenging poultry production system. In the future; the suggested recommendations are clear chicken production and breeding policy, establishing of more feed processing plants, establishing of strong regulatory bodies for importation and exportation graded eggs and meat, education of stakeholders at all levels about chicken bio-security levels and production dynamics and fully characterization of the native indigenous chickens in the country.

Keywords: Ethiopia, Chicken, System dynamics, Characteristics

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ISSN (Paper)2224-7181 ISSN (Online)2225-062X

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