High Human Exposure and Measurable Environmental Impact of Pesticides Application on Agriculture: A Review Article

Geremew Liknaw Tadesse


The adverse ecological effects occur from pesticides at all levels of biological organization. The effects can be global or local, temporary or permanent, or short-lived (acute) or long-term (chronic). The most serious effects involve loss in production, changes in growth, development and/or behavior, altered diversity or community structure, changes in system processes (such as nutrient cycling), and losses of valuable species. Pesticides can directly and indirectly impact non-target organisms like plants, bees and other pollinators, beneficial insects, fish, livestock, wildlife, humans and pollute environments like water, ground water, air and soil. The majority of pesticide have the nature of adsorbing (binding of chemicals to soil particles), persistence (ability of a pesticide to remain present and active for a long time), and volatility (the tendency of a pesticide to turn into a gas or vapor). They can be degraded by microbial action-destroying pesticide in soils, by photo degradation-using sunlight, by chemical degradation using non-living processes such as hydrolysis and by a chemical reaction with water, typically with a high pH (alkaline). Soil properties and conditions also affect the rate and type of chemical reactions of pesticides. Pesticide move by three basic medium air (vapor, particle, and spray drift), water (surface runoff, movement through soil) and deposits (residues on plants and animals). People who use pesticides or regularly come in contact with them must understand the relative toxicity, potential health effects, and preventative measures to reduce exposure to the products they use and look out special environmental considerations, groundwater protection, protect sensitive areas, and protect non-target organisms. In general the aim of this paper is to create awareness on effect of high human exposure to pesticides and measurable environmental impact of its administration on agricultures.

Keywords: Pesticides, Environment, Health risk, Pest management

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ISSN (Paper)2224-7181 ISSN (Online)2225-062X

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