Land Use and Land Cover Changes and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Local Community in Bako Tibe District, West Shewa Zone of Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia

Beresa Berhanu Benti


The trend of LULC changes, drivers and impacts were investigated in West Shoa Zone BakoTibe district, Oromia Regional state of Ethiopia, between 1973 and 2006 using GIS and RS, in conjunction with PRA. Three satellite images were acquired and the results showed a continuous increase in the areas of cultivated land in both study periods while decrease in forest and shrub land. Cultivated land accounts 40.4%, 46.9% and 55.0% in the years of 1973, 1986 and 2006 respectively. Cultivated land increase at an annual rate of 1.23% in the period 1973-1986 and at 0.86% in the period 1986-2006. However, forest land was diminishing from its 8.1% original coverage to 6.1% in the whole study period. Shrub land area was also reduced from 21.4% to 16.2%. Grassland was increase in the first period at the rate of 1.19% per annual and decrease in the second period at the rate of 0.62%. Also settlement continuously expands in both study periods. The major driver of land use and land cover is the population pressure. The main livelihood of the community is mainly based on agriculture, farmers expand their farm land to get subsistence food and destruct shrubs/forest for fuel wood. Lacks of clear property right on communal land also contributed for shrinkage of natural vegetation. The destruction of natural vegetation forced the farmers to change the sources of animal feed and energy sources. They used crop residue as animal feed and energy sources. In turn the mining of such organic matter from the farm land causes land degradation and reduction in crop productivity. Therefore, LULC expose farmers to extra cost to buy industrial fertilizers to get the required crop production. Also farmers recently start cultivation of high value cash crop to earn more income. To reduce the negative effect of LULC, the surrounding agricultural research institutes should work more with local community by providing improved stove which is efficient in energy use and improved breed of livestock.

Keywords: Ethiopia, LULC, GIS, Remote sensing, and Socio-economic

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