Review on Vaccine Production Using Transgenic Plants Against Selected Animal and Human Diseases

Birtukan Girma


Vaccines are a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. They can be produced by using different methods of which the egg-based vaccines, cell-based vaccines, and vaccines produced using investigational-manufacturing (plant, bacterial culture and insect cell) systems are some to mention. The technology of the use of plants as a bioreactor to produce human or animal therapeutic vaccines receives increasing attention. Many of these subunit vaccines have been purified and also administered orally in a non-purified form as a food or feed product and this review mainly focuses on edible   vaccines. Antigens from several human and veterinary pathogens have been expressed in transgenic plants, including Norwalk virus, rabies, measles, hepatitis B, anthrax, infectious bursal disease virus, and avian influenza virus.Production of edible subunit-based recombinant vaccine proteins in the form of leaves, seeds or fruit is expected to be cost effective, and products will be easily stored and transported under limited refrigeration without degradation. Administration of commercial edible vaccines will require significantly less labor and technical training of medical and veterinary personnel. Despite these promising attributes, there still remain concerns and challenges with edible vaccine development, such as achieving maximum expression levels, possible immune tolerance and allergy, as well as cross contamination concerns. Edible plant-derived vaccines may lead to a future of safer and more effective immunization practice.

Keywords: Bioreactor, Immunization, Non-purified, Purified, Transgenic Plants,Vaccine

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ISSN (Paper)2224-7181 ISSN (Online)2225-062X

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