Current Dynamics of Animal Conservation and Development in Developed and Developing Countries: A Review

Atsbaha Hailemariam, Yosef Tadesse


The objective of this paper was to review the current dynamics of animal conservation and development in developed and developing countries. The global population is expected to increase from 6.2 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050 year. Reports indicated that currently 7040 local breeds of animal diversity have been identified in the world in which most of these have been found in developing countries. Food production to support the ever increasing population needs to increase by at least 60% and 85% globally and in developing countries respectively. Reports have shown that high producing livestock breeds have been increased while suppressing the low producing animals regardless of their adaptability to the changing environment. Various scholars indicated that the risk status of 36% of animal breeds remained in a questionable event not because of natural selection but human case. Besides; references have shown that there were experiences of fast structural change with high proportions of breeds at-risk and already extinct confirmed to include 38% of chicken, 35% of pig, 33% of horse, and 31% of cattle breeds globally. Plus, Scholars have approved that there are many breeds listed under endangered such as African penguin, African wild dog, Ethiopian wolf, Ethiopian sheko cattle, Ethiopian Dinnar donkey, Asian elephant and Persian leopard. Similarly, evidences have explained that the American paddlefish, Fossa, whale shark, Mountain zebra and cheetah found to be under vulnerable conditions. .Many researchers have noticed that most animal conservation programs and methods have been developed suited to developed countries. References have indicated that livestock could be conserved under in-vivo and in-vitro methods. Additionally, the in-vivo could be classified as in-situ in-vivo and ex-situ in-vivo showing variable financial impact under developed and developing countries. The in-vitro animal conservation method has embraced the haploid (semen and oocyte) and diploid (embryo and DNA) conservation approaches remained to be important to be maintained under gene bank. The in-vitro approach has been proved to be practical in developed countries while affected by financial and knowledge barrier in the case of developing countries. Literatures have informed that the animal conservation experiences many significances in proving livestock variation, food security, granting change in conditions and providing cultural and historical importance .Reports have confirmed that there have been many factors affecting animal conservation and development such as globalization, Finance and fund, changes in animal production system, People preferences and attitude, Marketing conditions, climate change and variability, Disease and disasters and animal Biotechnology advancement. All in all, it can be concluded that there have been experiences of unregulated animal genetic erosion both in developed and developing countries. It can also be ascertained that there were poor attention and awareness about the impact of animal genetic erosion against conservation in developing countries. It is therefore recommended the national, regional and international governmental and non-governmental institutions to collaborate in conserving the animal genetic diversity in the world in general and the huge animal resources in developing country in particular as a whole.

Keywords: Conservation, Animal, dynamics, Developed countries, Developing countries

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ISSN (Paper)2224-7181 ISSN (Online)2225-062X

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