Mobile Genetic Elements and Natural Gene Transfer in Rumen Microbial Ecosystem

Haben Fesseha


As technology is going be modern different changes that occur in the nature become studied. Rumen microbes especially rumen bacteria play a vital role in utilization of ruminants feed. Without rumen microbe’s rumen can’t function correctly. So, when we feed our animals, we are also feeding rumen microbes which convert the plant fiber to VFA which used by ruminants as an energy source for maintenance and production. Through the process these microbes change in their genetic structure and function because of natural gene transfer which is mediated by movable genetic elements like bacteriophage, plasmid, transposons and other segments. In this review prokaryotes which include bacteria and archae have got large cover than eukaryotes because most significant changes in rumen are carried by those organisms. HGT is the way to perform this function because it enables bacteria to respond and adapt to their environment much more rapidly by acquiring large DNA sequence from other bacterium in a single transfer and mechanisms of bacterial gene transfer include transformation, transduction and conjugation.  So this event has an impact on the microbe themselves, for the rumen ecosystem, the animal and the environment where these changes are related. These changes include antibiotic resistance, better conversion of feeds and effects in methane and ammonia production.

Keywords: Horizontal Gene Transfer, Prokaryotes, Rumen. Rumen Microbes

DOI: 10.7176/ALST/78-03

Publication date: February 29th 2020

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ISSN (Paper)2224-7181 ISSN (Online)2225-062X

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