Assessment of the environmental effect of Cattle Market in Nigeria (A case study of Okigwe Area) South-Eastern Nigeria

Onunkwo A. A, Okoroji L. I


It was observed that cattle waste- blood, meat, urine and faeces litter the environment of cattle market in Nigeria producing objectionable odour and environmental pollution. Based on this, it becomes necessary to examine the impact of cattle wastes on the groundwater and soils of the areas of cattle market. A total of three (3) water and three (3) soil samples were collected from boreholes and soils within and outside the cattle market at a distance of 500 metres. The samples were analyzed in accordance with the standard. The element considered and analyzed include ph, calcium (Ca2+) magnesium (Mg2+), Chlorine (Cl-), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Iron (fe2+), Nitrate (NO3-), Coliform count, organic matter and organic carbon. Analytical procedures for physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters are also in accordance with the specification of American Public Health Association, (1985). Physical parameters like temperatures, conductivity and ph were measured insitu in the field with mercury thermometer, conductivity and ph meters. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were determined with EDTA titrimetry, Na+ and K+ were determined using flame photometer, Nitrate concentration was estimated using spectrophotometer, total iron (Fe2+) was estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) while coliform counts were estimate by the most probable number (MPN) technique. The result shows that ph has a value of 8.46 and 7.58 within and outside the market for soil 5.0 and 4.2 for water. Also within the water and soil medium sodium (Na+) recorded 90mg/L and 50mg/L, Calcium (Ca2+) recorded a common value of 1.5mg/L. The total coliform measured a zero value for water both within and outside the market. Organic carbon for soil recorded 0.34% and 2.27% within and outside the, while for the water it recorded 0.33% and 0.27%. The organic matter recorded within the market 0.58% and 0.48% for soils. These findings indicate accumulations of the elements of cattle wastes. Absence of coliform bacteria is due to appreciable depth of borehole 60.98m (200ft). The analyzed parameters have inflated values within the market due to leaching. High rate of nitrate oxidation improves soil fertility. High concentration of sodium (Na+) can have adverse effects on soil fertility while potassium (K+) improves the soil fertility. Excess nitrate can affect oxygen content of the blood leading to methemoglobin and blue baby symptom. Organic carbon and organic matter improves soil fertility. It is recommended that biogas plant should be established in the area, borehole within the cattle market environment should be of appreciable depth at least 60.98-91.46 (200-300ft). Agricultural activities involving crops/ plant should be set up within the environment of the cattle market.

Keywords: Cattle market, pollution, Nigeria, soil, ground water, SE Nigeria sedimentary Basin.

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