Retrospective Cohort Study of Antenatal Care and Pregnancy Outcomes in Kadjebi District of Ghana

Emmanuel S. Kasu, Andrews Ayim, John Tampuori, Semenyo Atimpo


Antenatal care is essential strategy for improving maternal and pregnancy outcome. We determined the association between antenatal attendance and pregnancy outcome using low birth weight and preterm birth. We conducted retrospective cohort study using data from antenatal and delivery records of all the maternity units in Kadjebi District from October 2012 to January 2013. The study subjects were a cohort of women who delivered in maternity units in the district from 1st January to 31st December 2011.The study participants were 663 pregnant women with mean age of 25.8 years, ranging between 15-45 years. Most of the women, 53.9% were between 20-29 years and 16.2% were teenagers. The mean parity of the women was 2.1. Almost all the pregnant women, 99.2% had at least one antenatal care but only 48.2% of them made the optimum antenatal visits recommended by WHO. About 55.5% of the deliveries were preterm. Pregnant women with height <145cm were most likely to have good antenatal attendance (LR, OR:  0.65, CI: 0.45-0.95, P= 0.0246). Preterm delivery was more among Sickling positive pregnant women (LR, OR: 4.37, CI: 1.55-12.33, P: 0.0052). Low birth weight was most common among the unemployed (OR: 5.17, CI: 1.72-15.60, P: 0.0035). Early antenatal registration was protective against low birth weight (OR: 0.27, CI: 0.07-0.95, P: 0.0415). Analysis of data collected in the antenatal and delivery registers can yield valuable information for public health action. Antenatal attendance was almost universal however, optimum antennal visits was undesirably lower than expected. Early registration for antenatal care would reduce low birth weight and improve pregnancy outcome.

Keywords: Ghana, Antenatal care, Prenatal care, Retrospect cohort study, pregnancy outcome

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3208 ISSN (Online)2225-093X

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