Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Malaria-Geohelminth Co-Infection and Syndemics in Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study of Pregnant Women Attending Ante Natal Care at Nandi Hills Sub County Hospital, Kenya



Aim: The study investigated the effect of different socio-demographic factors on malaria-geo-helminth co-infections in pregnant women attending Antenatal care at Nandi Hills Sub County Hospital.Methodology: study area lies within latitudes 00 and 0034’ North and Longitudes 34045’’ and 35025’’ East. Study design was a cross sectional study and the participants who consented were selected randomly and requested to fill an informed consent form. About 5 grams of stool sample Stool was collected by the participants and processed immediately at the hospital using formal- ether concentration technique. Participants donated capillary blood sample by a finger prick. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained using Field Stains A and B. Semi structured questionnaires were developed and administered to obtain information regarding individual socio demographics. Chi-square test and Phi and Cramer’s V test of strength of association were used to analyse the data. Results: parasite co-infection was recorded for P. falciparum-A. lumbricoides and P. falciparum-hookworm. There were no co-infections of P. falciparum-T.trichiura parasites or infection with more than two parasites. Factors that significantly (P<.05) affected parasite co-infection by chi-square analysis were being married, residing in own home in the rural, having a small family size and being a middle income earner for P. falciparum-hookworm co-infections. P. falciparum-A. lumbricoides co-infection was significant only with being married. Parasites association by Phi strength of association was negative for P. falciparum-A. lumbricoides co-infection except with being single(rᵠ=.019) and residing in urban rental(rᵠ=.084). P. falciparum-hookworm co-infection association was positive except with being single (rᵠ=-.006) and staying in the estate camp (rᵠ=-.097).Conclusion: socio-demographic factors that were considered impacted differently on parasite co-infection. Association of P. falciparum and geo-helminths became variable with different socio-demographic factors.

Keywords: malaria geo-helminths socio-demographics co-infection syndemics pregnancy

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