Review on Leptospirosis in Animals and Its Public Health Importance

Jalel Negero


Leptospirosis is one of the major zoonotic bacterial infections that have a potential to affect all mammals including human and it has been documented as emerging zoonotic infectious disease. It has a worldwide distribution and caused by spiral shaped gram negative bacteria called Leptospira. The infection is primarily transmitted from animal to human through direct contact with urine of infected animal and ingestion of feed and water contaminated by Leptospira. Although found globally, leptospirosis is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of the world particularly, where there is heavy rainfall and humidity. The clinical pictures of leptospirosis do not vary greatly with the species of animals. In human; individual working in agriculture and sewage, veterinarians and individuals in close contact with animals are at risk. Direct microscopic examination, serology and molecular techniques are commonly used for the diagnosis of the disease. Treatment is possible with specific serum therapy and by administration of antibiotics like tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin. Applying of a good sanitary measures, vaccination, quarantine and rodent control are the most important control options of the leptospirosis.

Keywords: Leptospirosis, Zoonosis, Leptospira.

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3208 ISSN (Online)2225-093X

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