Detection of Haemoparasites of Blood Donors in 9 Locations in and Around Plateau State, Nigeria

Mabel .E. Ike, Emmanuel . C. Onuoha, Asabe. J. Yohanna, Anthony. D. Dakul, Garba .J. Damen, Ezekiel. F. Hallie, Vivian. A. Maduka, Nake. Nelson-Ebimie, Jangfa. N. Nden, Tracy .A. Diepreye


Haemoparasites in the tropics are also endemic in Nigeria. Asymptomatic infections may abound, due to resistance to these infections. This asymptomatic infection has been one of the factors, which has maintained transmission of these pathogens, through many ways, including blood donation and transfusion. In this report, haemoparasitic infections in blood donors have been described, from blood donors within Plateau State, Nigeria. Five hundred and twelve blood donors were selected by means of a random sampling method and their blood samples collected. Serological assay was done using rapid test kits to check for presence of antibodies (in the case of microfilariae) or antigens (in the case of malaria) to the different haemoparasites. Also, Elisa technique was used for the microfilariae. Thick and thin films were made from each blood sample on grease-free slides allowed to dry and stained by 3% Giemsa solution for 45 min which is the Giemsa technique. Results indicate that 270 (52.7%) of the sample population had no infection; 121( 23.6%) of the population were infected with Plasmodium falciparum; 11 (2.1%) were infected with Plasmodium malariae; 69 (13.5%) were infected with HBsAg; 29 (5.7%) were infected with HCV; 7 ( I.4% ) were infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense; 1% were infected with microfilariae, 4( 0.8% ) of the 1% were unsheathed and identified to be Mansonella perstans, while 1(0.2%) were sheathed and identified to be Loa loa. Most blood group types were susceptible to haemoparasitic infections. The result of the study therefore stresses the need to screen blood for haemoparasites before transfusion, owing to the dangers of doing otherwise. The occupations and dwelling places of the donors are predisposing factors to these haemoparasitic infections. Since they have the passion to save lives through blood donation, they should therefore make the necessary adjustments that will make them more suitable lifesavers. It is recommended that the basic transmission factors of these parasites are explained to donors to reduce further incidences.

DOI: 10.7176/JBAH/9-22-01

Publication date: November 30th 2019

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