Phenotypic Characterization of AmpC beta-lactamase among Cefoxitin Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Accra, Ghana

Henry Kwadwo Hackman, George Osei-Adjei, Andrew Gordon, Emmanuel Laryea, Solomon Quaye, Lawrence Anison, Charles A Brown, Kingsley Twum-Danso


AmpC ?-lactamases hydrolyze penicillins, cephalosporins and cephamycins and resist inhibition by clavulanate, sulbactam, and tazobactam. Strains with AmpC genes are inherently resistant to multiple agents, making the selection of an effective antibiotic difficult. This present work sought to investigate the occurrence of AmpC beta-lactamases-producing phenotypes in E. coli and K. pneumoniae and their antimicrobial sensitivity profile. Four hundred K. pneumoniae and E. coli non-duplicate isolates were collected and their antibiotic sensitivity testing for cefoxitin and other 16 antibiotics were determined using Vitek 2 Compact System (bioMérieux, Marcy I’Etoile, France).  The isolates resistant to cefoxitin were confirmed as AmpC beta-lactamases-producing phenotypes with disk synergy testing (DST) using cefotaxime or ceftazidime with or without boronic acid. An increase in zone diameter of ?5mm in the presence of boronic acid indicates the presence of AmpC beta-lactamases in the test organism. The results showed that of the 50 cefoxitin resistant isolates screened from 400 bacterial isolates, 5(10%) were AmpC beta-lactamase-producers with 60%, 60%, 60%, 80% and 100% multiply antibiotic resistance in gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline respectively. Nitrofurantoin which indicated 100% susceptibility with MIC90 of 32µg/ml may be a therapeutic option especially for non-life-threatening urinary tract infection. Imipenem was the antibiotic of choice with 100% susceptibility rates (MIC90 of ?1µg/ml). Though the insignificant (p>0.05) levels of AmpC beta-lactamase phenotypes may not require routine detection in health facilities, there is the need to implement evolutionary antibiotic administration policies and pragmatic infection control measures in the hospitals.     

Keywords: AmpC beta-lactamase, Cefoxitin, ?-lactams, E. coli, K. pneumoniae

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3208 ISSN (Online)2225-093X

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