Occupants’ Opinion on Adequacy of Environmental Factors of Public Housing in Awka and Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria

Eni, Chikadibia Michael


The aim of this study was to evaluate the occupants’ perception of fourteen public housing estates in Awka and Onitsha towns in Anambra State. The following environmental factors of public housing were studied. Two research questions and  one  null hypothesis were formulated and tested. The theoretical basis of this study was hinged on Adam’s Equity theory because it focused on determining whether the distribution of housing resources is fair to both relational partners (Occupants in Awka and Onitsha towns). Equity was measured by comparing the ratios or proportionality of contributions and benefits of each person within the relationship. The universe of study consisted of 2,805 respondents comprising mainly housewives, and secondly, 2,805 house units, comprising 1,032 in Awka town and 1,773 in Onitsha town. A stratified random sampling  of  these  nine disparate public housing  estates  were studied: Iyiagu Housing Estate(28)3.32%, Real Housing Estate(27)3.20%, Udoka Housing Estate(150)17.81%, Ngozika Housing Estate(8)0.96%, Oganiru Housing Estate Phases 1&2(24)2.85%, AHOCOL (Inner City Layout) Housing Estate(2)0.24%, AHOCOL (Think Home) Housing Estate Phase 1 (or Ahocol 2(8)0.96%, AHOCOL (Think Home) Housing Estate Phase 2 (or Ahocol 3)(10)1.20% AHOCOL (Think Home) Housing Estate Phase 3 (or Ahocol 4)(52)6.20% in Awka  town , while in Onitsha town, these five housing estates were studied: Niger Bridge-Head Housing Estate(166)19.71% and Federal (Site and Services) Housing Estate, Trans-Nkissi (or “33”)(353)42.00%, Onitsha Federal Low Cost Housing(5)0.6%, Nkissi, Akpaka Housing(5)0.6%  and Ahocol Housing Estate in GRA (3)0.35% making a total of fourteen  housing estates in all.  Samples of respondents were chosen from each estate in proportion to its population.   A total of 842 respondents and 842 households were sampled representing 30%   of the universe.  Mostly Women were used as primary respondents in each household because they are more affected by inappropriate housing and environment and are much more identified with the home. A 12-item structured questionnaire on public housing (QPHEF) consisting of six (6) sections was developed. The questions consisted of 5-point Likert rating scale ranging from 1-5 in which respondents indicated the extent to which they considered the listed variables. The mid-point of 3 implied that any result significantly different from this mean value was assumed to be either positive or negative. This instrument was face and content validated. Cronbach Alpha Technique index was used for reliability test which gave a value of 0.90. This technique was pre-tested on a sample of 30 respondents/residents of one non-studied public housing estate. The research questions were processed using percentages, means, chi-square, Contingency Table Analysis (CTA) and one way Categorical data analysis of variance (CATANOVA), while the hypotheses were tested by proportion of difference using Z-test. These statistical tools fitted the analysis of the data available in this study because the data were discrete in nature and cross-classified by two classifying factors of towns and occupants’ responses to listed variables (SA, AG, UN, DI and SD or VLH, LH, MH, BH and NH). The data were obtained by pulling all positive responses (SA and AG or VLH and LH) for each category of occupants (Awka or Onitsha) as positive responses and (DI and SD or BH and NH) as negative responses and their proportions obtained and filled below pooled observations (counts). Undecided responses were left as neutral. Complete responses were 797 comprising 299 occupants in Awka and 498 occupants in Onitsha. The major finding of the study was (1). The proportion of occupants responding positively to habitability of public housing in Onitsha is greater than the proportion responding positively to it in Awka. The differences between the two towns were discussed and explained. Strategies for ameliorating the sources of dissatisfaction, as well as policy implications were discussed.

Key terms: Occupants’ Opinion, Adequacy of Environmental Factors, Public Housing and Anambra State.

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3216 ISSN (Online)2225-0948

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