Effects of Population Density on Water Quality in Calabar Municipality Cross River State, Nigeria



The study was carried out with the aim of assessing the effects of population density on groundwater quality in the area. A total of six (6) groundwater sample were collected from six (6) boreholes in the study area for analysis of their physico-chemical parameters. The results shows the following range and mean value; temperature (28.5-30°C) with a mean value of 29.5°C, pH (6.0- 6.3) with a mean value of 6.05, indicating that groundwater in the area is slightly acidic, Electrical conductivity (95.2-296IJS/cm) with a mean value of 171.1IJS/cm, Total dissolved solid (47.6-148mg/l) with an average value of 85.4mg/l, Ca (0.8-1.8mg/l) with a mean value of 1.1 mgll, Mg (0.29 and 0.58 mgll) with a mean value of O.4mgll, S04 (0-8 mgll) with a mean value of 3.2mgll, N03(0-6.1 mgll) with a mean value of 4.2mg/l, CI (6-10 mgll) with a mean value of 7.8mg/l and Faecal coliform (0-19 CFU/100) with a mean value of 8.8CFU/1 00. The distribution pattern of the chemical parameters does not show a clear relationship between population density and water chemistry. Finally, assessment of the water quality shows that groundwater around in the study area is suitable for irrigation while groundwater around Ediba, Essien Town, Ikot Omin and Ikot Effanga is not fit for drinking, due to high content of coliform bacteria. Therefore groundwater in these areas should be treated before drinking.

Keywords: Population, density, water quality, and effects.

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3216 ISSN (Online)2225-0948

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