Quality assessment of physico-chemical parameters for various bottled waters marketed in Baghdad City, Iraq; An environmental approach

Sa'ad Zeki A.Kader Al-Mashaikie, Ena'am Juma'a Abdullah


Twenty five domestic bottled water brands of available commercially sold in Baghdad Provence (Iraq) were collected from local markets. Recorded results were compared with the Iraqi Standards Institution, standards of quality and standards of identity as well as various international water standards for bottled waters. Results showed widespread in the characteristics of investigated bottled waters, yet the majority met the bottled water standards for physico-chemical parameters. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters are of calcium–magnesium sulphate type; some brands were rich in sodium–potassium bicarbonate, and few were of the mixed type. Application of the Piper diagram shows that the majority of the tested bottled water brands originated from limestone aquifer, with the minor from limestone and evaporite origin or gypcrete sediments.

Comparison of the study results with reported label values indicated good agreement with stated pH values as well as Mg+2, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, HCO3-, Cl-, and SO4-2. The classification of the tested bottled waters according to TDS contents is ranging from very low to low mineral concentrations. Based on the classification criteria of the total hardness, most of the examined water brands considered to have soft to moderately hard waters.

Water quality for physico-chemical parameters were estimated to ascertain compliance with recommended standards by World Health Organization (WHO, 2008) and Iraqi Standards (IQS, 2009) for drinking water. The recorded results are coincides with the WHO and IQS standards for drinking water, which indicates the potability of the bottled waters and hence, could be consumed without any possible health problems.

Keywords Bottled water, Water quality, Piper diagrams, Baghdad-Iraq

Full Text: PDF
Download the IISTE publication guideline!

To list your conference here. Please contact the administrator of this platform.

Paper submission email: JEES@iiste.org

ISSN (Paper)2224-3216 ISSN (Online)2225-0948

Please add our address "contact@iiste.org" into your email contact list.

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright © www.iiste.org