Spatial Distribution of Radionuclides and Major Elements in Soil of Murree and Kotli Sattian Punjab, Pakistan

Khizar Hayat Satti


The study is aimed to investigate the specific activity of radionuclides and major elements in soils of Subdivisions  Murree and Kotli Sattian (Himalayan Mountain range) Pakistan as a part of the ongoing baseline data collection using gamma-ray spectrometer and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF).The natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K showed inhomogenous distribution 20.0 to 29.5, 43.4 to 62.4 and 163.0 to 493.6 Bq kg-1 respectively where as 137Cs exhibited extreme variation from 1.3 to 54.1 Bqkg-1. The dominant constitutes of soil were SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3. Weak to moderate correlation was observed between elemental composition and activity concentrations of radionuclides. The average annual effective absorbed dose rate measured at 1m above ground due to terrestrial sources was 72.9 ± 1.0 µSvy-1. The high altitude of study area causes the dominant doses to the public .The radium equivalent activity Raeq, outdoor and indoor hazard indices were lower than the safe limit of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development report for general public.

Keywords: Gamma emitters, major elements, XRF, soil, Himalayan Mountain range, Gamma Spectrometry

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3216 ISSN (Online)2225-0948

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