Evaluation of Present Lake Environment from Geochemistry of Bottom Sediment of Hartbeespoort Dam, North-West Province, South Africa

Danlami Ibrahim, Hiroaki Ishiga


Present Lake Environment of Hartbeespoort Dam was evaluated from Geochemistry of bottom Sediment. Ten (10) bottom sediment samples were collected across the entire Lake. The geochemical composition of the sediment samples was determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF); trace and major elements determined includes As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe2O3, TiO2, MnO, CaO and P2O5. The trace elements concentrations of the sediment were grouped into three zones base on their spatial distribution. The Western zone of the lake shows a remarkable enrichment in Nickel (Ni) and Chromium (Cr) and could be associated with geogenic source. However high enrichment of phosphate (P2O5) observed in the same zone could be attributed to anthropogenic source, due to agricultural activities on the catchment of Magalies River. Moderate enrichment of As, Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb was recorded in the central zone and could be ascribed to entrapment by fine-grained organic and Fe-rich clay deposit in the central part of the lake; this was showcased by the strong positive correlation between the trace elements and Fe2O3. As, Zn, Pb and Cu were highly enriched in the South – Eastern zone and anthropogenic source could be responsible for the enrichment due to the influence of the Crocodile River. The average concentration of As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr in the sediment were evaluated by comparison with the upper continental crust (UCC), Shale standard (Turekian and Wedepohl, 1961) and Sediment quality guidelines (SQG); the result indicates that As, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr in the study area were above the lowest effect level (LEL) but below the severe affect level (SEL) which shows that the impact on biota is moderate. However, Nickel (Ni) was above the severe effect level and could therefore have severe effect on the aquatic environment.

Keywords: aquatic environment, Bottom Sediment, Heavy Metals, Hartbeespoort Dam, X-ray fluorescence

DOI: 10.7176/JEES/9-11-10

Publication date: November 30th 2019

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3216 ISSN (Online)2225-0948

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