Calculating the Proportionality of Aerial Attacks Towards Electrical Power Systems: A Study on the Proportionality of Attacks Towards Iraqi Electrical Power Systems in the First Gulf War

Syofirman Syofyan, Alma Manuputty, S. M. Noor, Oky Deviany Burhamzah


One group of targets attacked using armed force was the Iraqi electrical system. A direct impact of that attack was the damaging of four hydroelectric power plants, six thermoelectric power plants as well as several other power plants and it was suspected that a few deaths or wounds were a direct side effect on civilians. The damaging of 10 power plants resulted in the there being a lack of power both for Iraq’s military facilities as well as for civil uses. Attacks are ideally defined as acts of violence done against an enemy done either when attacking or when defending but it also needs to be specified on what level is it done. On a tactical level attacks are defined as single attacks or individual attackson each target such as the ones on the electrical power plants. that it is balanced with military interests/necessity which is also not specified by International Humanitarian These civillian losses are such losses that have the traits of being concrete, direct and overall which bear the same definition as  the traits concrete, direct and overall applied in military advantages or conversely, if the mlitary advantages do not bear the traits of being concrete, direct and overall.

Keywords: Proportionality of Aerial Attacks,  Iraqi Electrical Power Systems, First Gulf War.


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ISSN (Paper)2224-3240 ISSN (Online)2224-3259

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