Evaluation of risk factors causing osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Patients.

Aiman Saeed, Humaira Parveen, Bushra Jamil


Objective: The main aim of study was to investigate the prevalence of risk factors and osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

Methods: This prospective cross sectional study was done in pulmonology department Nishtar Hospital Multan. Total 369 patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diagnosed according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD) criteria were enrolled by non-probability consecutive sampling. The study was conducted from January 2016 to November 2016. Ethical approval was taken from committee of the hospital. Written permission was signed by each patient included in study. Quantitative variables like age, body mass index, FEV1, pack years smoking and vitamin D were statistically measured in mean and standard deviation. Qualitative variables like gender and area of living were statistically analyzed in percentage and frequency. ANNOVA was applied to test the significance. P value <0.05 was taken as significant.

Results: Overall, 100% (n=369) patients were included, in this study; divided into two groups i.e. non-osteoporosis 60% (n=220) and osteoporosis 40% (n=149). The mean age, BMI and smoking pack-years of the non-osteoporosis patients was 67.99±4.61 years, 23.92±1.95 kg/m2 and 41.62±10.20 respectively. There were 94.1% (n=207) males and 5.9% (n=13) females. While, the mean age, BMI and smoking pack-years of the osteoporosis patients was 71.44±3.90 years, 21.91±3.26 kg/m2 and 49.05±3.00 respectively. There were 97.3% (n=145) males and 2.7% (n=4) females. Education status of the non-osteoporosis patients observed as 36.4% (n=80) illiterate and 63.6% (n=140) elementary or above, while there were 38.3% (n=57) osteoporosis patients illiterate and 61.7% (n=92) were elementary or above. Significant differences were found between age (p=0.000), BMI (p=0.000), smoking pack years (p=0.000), BMD T-score (p=0.000), Systolic BP (p=0.000), Diastolic BP (p=0.000), FVC, liters (p=0.000), FVC, predicted%, (p=0.000), FEV1, liters (p=0.000), FEV1, predicted% (p=0.000) and FEV1/FVC (p=0.000), in groups. Association was found between HTN (p=0.000) and GOLD (p=0.001) in groups.

Conclusion: Study concluded that osteoporosis is hidden and common comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Its prevalence was high among the patients. ------ were independent risk factors in developing osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Pulmonologists should consider and properly investigate osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

Key words: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoporosis, bone mineral density

DOI: 10.7176/JMPB/54-06

Publication date: April 30th 2019

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