Antibacterial Activity of Alchornea cordifolia (Christmas bush) Leaves Extract on Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Causing Multi-drug Resistant Systemic Infections

Henry Kwadwo Hackman, Reuben Essel Arhin, Bright Kojo Azumah, David Boateng, Blessing Nwosu, Mark Appenteng


Carbapenems have been used for the treatment of systemic infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. However, recent studies suggested that some Enterobacteriaceae are producing carbapenemases, which has limited the treatment options for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Some of the emerging carbapenemase resistant Enterobacteriaeae that are causing multi-drug resistant systemic infections include Escherichia coli, Klebsiellae pneumoniae, Providencia rettgeri, Proteus mirabili, Pantoea species, Citrobacter koseri and Acinetobacter baumanii. There is therefore the need for alternative treatment regimens for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. This study determined the in vitro efficacy of Alchornea cordifolia on carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using agar well diffusion and well microplate dilution method. Serial dilutions of the ethanolic crude extract of the leaves were prepared and used against the carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The phytochemical screening was also performed to determine the antibacterial compounds. The christmas bush leaves extracts concentrations ranging from 50 mg/ml – 200 mg/ml showed active diameter zone of inhibition. The ethanolic extract of Christmas bush leaves had minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of 3.13mg/ml indicating significant antibiotic activity against the carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The phytochemical screening of the Christmas bush leaves showed the presence of antimicrobial phytochemicals such as flavonoids. This offers the possibility of developing effective antimicrobial agent to treat multi-drug resistant systemic infections. Therefore, there is the need to determine the toxicological effect and perform clinical trials of the active antimicrobial compounds isolated in the leave extracts of Christmas bush shrub.

Keywords: Alchornea cordifolia, Flavonoids, Antibacterial, Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

DOI: 10.7176/JNSR/10-10-03

Publication date:May 31st 2020

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3186 ISSN (Online)2225-0921

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