Field Occurrence, Petrography and Structural Characteristics of the Basement Rocks in the Northern Part of Kushaka and Birnin Gwari Schist Belts, Northwestern Nigeria

Kehinde Oluyede, Garba Ibrahim, Umar Danbatta, Paul Ogunleye, Urs Klötzli


Field, studies and geological mapping on a scale of 1:50000 were carried out to determine the lithologic framework and structural features of the Basement Complex rocks in northern parts of the Kushaka and Birnin Gwari schist belts (Kushaka Sheet 122). The area is underlain predominantly by five main rock types mainly (i) Migmatite-Gneiss-Quartzite suite comprising dioritic, granodioritic and granitic gneisses with fissile and ferruginous quartzites and banded iron formations (BIF); (ii) Kushaka graphite and sulphur bearing biotite and muscovite quartz schist inter-banded in places with iron formations; (iii) Birnin Gwari biotite-staurolite quartz schist; iv) the Kushaka Gneiss Complex composed of basalts (which is being reported for the first time), staurolite and muscovite gneisses and banded iron formations (BIF), and (v) syn-tectonic and late-orogenic biotite-hornblende syenite (BHS) and biotite-hornblende granite (BHG) in the Kushaka schist belt and biotite muscovite granite (BMG) in the Birnin Gwari schist belt area. Petrographic studies have revealed that essential minerals are quartz, K-feldspars (orthoclase, microcline), plagioclase, pyroxene, epidote, hornblende, biotite and muscovite while the accessory minerals are titanite, zircon, apatite, iron oxide (magnetite and hematite). With pyroxenes occurring in the dioritic and granodioritic rocks, metamorphism may have locally reached grannulite facies. Imprints of Pan-African thermo-tectonic events have shown observable migmatization as the first thermo-tectonic event resulting in plastic deformation D1 and regional S1 foliation, demostrated by presence of tight isoclinals fold, compositional banding and N – S preferred orientation of mafic minerals. The D2 deformation is co-axial with D1 and resulted in the formation of decimeter sized F2 isoclinal folds, B2 boudins and eye ball structures that are parallel to S1 plane schistocity. Strike-slip faults with dextral sense of movements were mapped in a number of places. D3 deformation is concentrated in the Kushaka Gneiss Complex with near circular deep fractures south of the Kalangai fault. Here granitization and fragmentation of proto-mylonitic staurolite resulted in brittle deformation and F3 open fold that refolded or transposed the earlier tight isoclinal F2 folds. The D4 deformation resulted in N-S and NW-SE quartz veins and pegmatite dykes which serve as channels for epigenetic gold-sulphide and rare metal bearing ore fluids.

Keywords: Basement Complex, Pan-African, metamorphism, deformation, Kushaka, Birnin Gwari, Nigeria

DOI: 10.7176/JNSR/12-12-02

Publication date:June 30th 2021

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3186 ISSN (Online)2225-0921

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