A Retrospective Study on the Epidemiological Trend of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) Co-Infection in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

Amuta E.U, Tsaku Isaac Mary, Akyala Ishaku. A


Tuberculosis (TB) co-infection with HIV is becoming a global emergency especially in the sub-Saharan Africa. Its diagnosis is notoriously challenging in countries with poor resource settings with limited diagnostic facilities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the epidemiological trend of HIV/TB co-infection among the seropositive HIV individuals in Nasarawa state, Nigeria. A five year retrospective study from January 2007 to December 2011 was carried out using profiles of seropositive HIV individuals. A total of 3,470 case records of subjects were retrieved and pre-designed case record forms (CRF) were used to record vital information in demographic data, social and medical history, laboratory results, treatment access and mortality data. 841 (24.2%) individuals had HIV/TB co-infection. The age group 20-29 years had the highest prevalence rate (30.3%) with HIV/TB co-infection while females had higher prevalence rate (56.7%) throughout the five year period of study. Individuals with formal education had the least prevalence rate (21.9%) in all the years under review except in 2009 (35.9%) while individuals “not educated” had the highest prevalence rate (41.1%) except in 2010 (36.0%).The married individuals had the highest prevalence rate (46.0%) followed by the single adults (26.0%). The unemployed individuals had the higher prevalence rate (52.6%) in four years while the employed rated 50.3% in 2009. There was a rise in the number of individuals who had access to ATTB treatment   from 2009-2011, while there was a decline in the number of individuals who had   access to ART treatment from 2007-2011. Females had higher mortality rate (54.5%) from 2008-2011 while the mortality rate of males in 2007 was 50.5%.Women were greatly affected by HIV/TB co-infection as a result of poor socio-economic status. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) for all demographic indices except for educational status (p<0.05).Greater intervention programs and services should be provided especially for women.

Key Word. Pulmonary, Tuberculosis, Antiretroviral, Treatment, Socio-economical.

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