Religious Misconception Leads to Various Practices of Women as Compensation in Dispute Settlement in Khyber Pakhtukhwa

Fazal Hanan


This study intended to explore the hidden facts causing the women as compensation practices (Swara) in pukhtoon culture. It was a cross-sectional study carried out in Disttswat, where data was collected from the four union councils namely Kalam, Othrore, Chupreyal and Bartana respectively. Parents, brother or blood relatives of Swara and Swaraherself (Women) were chosen as respondents for this study. A sample size of 205 respondents out of 369 were randomly selected and proportionally allocated to the whole universe of the study. A conceptual frame work comprised of one independent i.e poor religious fallacy and women as compensation as dependent variable with education, family type and income as controlled variables were assessed. The collected data was analyzed through simple frequency distribution, bi-variate and multi-variate to assess the layout, level of association and effects of extraneous variables while ascertaining the level of relationship between independent and dependent variables at bi-variate level. Moreover, reliability analysis was also carried out and reliability coefficient was found as 0.74.The study found that Religion was the most misunderstood and miss interpreted and was used an instrumental tool in social control. At Bi-variate level, association of dispute resolution for religion does not allow women as compensation and awareness regarding religious teachings on women education were found positive and significant with women as compensation. While indexing independent and dependent variables poor religious fallacy were found positive and significant. Furthermore, a spurious relationship was found between literate and illiterate group, nuclear and joint family setup and low income group while it was found non-spurious for medium and high income group with women as compensation. The study concluded that people had a vision that compensation practices were though un-Islamic but despite being practiced as obligatory due to low status of women in the study area. Nuclear family setup and illiterate group were found more proven to Swara practice. A full pledged campaign on Islamic teaching while declaring such practices as inhuman, creation of jobs to avert poverty and provision of schooling facilities for women folk with the sound support of local social and religious elites were some of the recommendations in light of the study.

Keywords: Religious Fallacy, Dispute Settlement and Women as Compensation Practices.

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