Trade in Hajj in the Umayyad State 41-132H / 661-750M

Mohammad sayyah alesa


There is no doubt that a great rite in Islam such as pilgrimage must be accompanied by many economic activities. In Hajj, people come together from different races and sects. Each pilgrim comes with what he produces and makes in his own country and then exchanges, buying and selling. In this research I will highlight the commercial activity in Hajj In the Umayyad period 41-132 AH / 661-750 AD.

Thousands of pilgrims came to perform Hajj every year, and the markets were diversified. Some markets were distinguished as seasonal markets such as the Ka'az, the Mujahideen and the Mejazi. They were held during the Hajj season and were intended to trade and exchange goods and commodities, whether locally or imported, These markets were frequented by those who wanted to buy or sell any of the goods offered and traded. Hence, these markets were called the markets of the seasons for the meeting of the people where the sale and purchase.

The grain trade, such as wheat, barley, wheat, and food[1]., was a popular trade during the Hajj seasons[2], because there were thousands of pilgrims every year in poor Makkah with their natural and food resources,[3] which led to the scarcity of foodstuffs available to the people of Makkah The Iraqi convoys from Iraq were rich and loaded with luggage and goods. Iraqi merchants transported large amounts of grain, such as wheat and barley, to the Hijaz for sale during the Hajj seasons. Wadi Al Qora was an old commercial road[4]. It passes By pilgrims after Islam station receiving Iraqi goods, including the transfer to Mecca.

The grain trade in the ports of Hejaz, such as Jeddah and Al-Jarar, which became great markets especially for the pilgrims who lived there before they moved to Mecca, flourished. Some Egyptian pilgrims brought with them some of their goods and grains to sell in Jeddah. Then they bought what they needed before moving to (Mecca)[5], and sources point to the importance of Jeddah Port as a station to receive ships loaded with grain, these ships come loaded with wheat to Jeddah in the seasons of Hajj ([6]), and then traders to transfer these grains to Mecca and to sell and earn them, Al-Fakhi narrated about an eyewitness saying: "I saw a merchant who came from And I saw a fisherman who gave the whales of the husks, and he sold every whale of drham[7]. "In Makkah, the merchants used to buy and sell foodstuffs and other goods, and they lived next to the Holy Mosque during (Hajj) days[8], where demand for food is increasing.

[1] "O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley without cultivation, by Thy Sacred House; in order, O our Lord, that they may establish regular Prayer: so fill the hearts of some among men with love towards them, and feed them with fruits: so that they may give thanks.

[2] Kharboutli, Ali Husni, History of Iraq under the Umayyad Political, Social and Economic Rule, Dar Al Ma'arif, Cairo 1959

[3] Atwan, Hussein, The Poets of the Oases in the Umayyad Period, Dar Al Ma'arif, Cairo, 1970, p. 105

[4] Wadi al-Qura was named because the valley from the first to the last villages of the system, and was one of the work of the country and the effects of the villages to date phenomenon. Al-Hamwi, Dictionary of Countries, vol. 4, p. 338.

[5] Ibn al-Jawzi, Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Ali (d. 597 AH / 1201 AD) The recipe of the elite, I 4, C 4, the realization of Mahmoud Fakhouri, Dar al-Maarifa Beirut 1986 pp. 324-325.

[6] Ibn Asaker, The History of Damascus, C6, pp. 273-274.

[7] Al-Faqihi, Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn al-Abbas (d. 275 AH / 888 AD) Makkah News in Old and Modern, II, 2C, Investigation by Abdul Malik Abdulla Deheish, Dar Khader, Beirut 1994 pg 346

[8] Al-Asfahani, Ali bin al-Hussein (356 AH / 967 AD) Songs, I 1, C 9,, House of Revival of Arab Heritage, Beirut, 1995 p. 329

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