Review: Some Molecular Breeding Issues at Genome Level in Fruit Species

Emine Orhan


The traditional plant breeding studies preferred for centuries are still widely used. Human beings started their first selection studies within the scope of plant breeding by making use of wild plant products in order to meet their nutritional needs. Later, the first growers have discovered foreign pollination to increase the yield of some agricultural crops. Thus, they could make improvements in the vegetative characteristics of new offspring individuals by hybridization by artificial pollination in different parent plants. With a better understanding of the science of genetics, crossbreeding studies were also important in order to obtain new individuals with desired features. Plant breeding studies haave improved further in the 20th century, and the mechanisms for how to obtain new agricultural varieties with superior qualifications that will keep the desired characteristics are better understood. The rapid developments in the fields of quantitative genetics, mutation breeding, polyploidy breeding and plant tissue culture studies have formed the foundations of today's plant breeding issues. In parallel with the advances in gene cloning, direct gene transfer studies to plant tissues have also been successful. Gel, hybridization and expression systems; cell imaging by light and electron microscopy; With advances in molecular techniques such as high-density microarrays and sequencing, various areas of 'omics' such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabalomics and phenomics have been contributed. In the 2000s, plant breeders focused more on genomic studies. Plant breeding studies are now planned with intense interest on genome-wide association studies and genome editing (genome design) studies. The aim of this study is to give brief information about some molecular breeding issues that are being carried out at the genome level in the breeding of perennial fruit species. Molecular maps in fruit breeding, selection approaches at the molecular level and the purpose of creating genetic maps based on marker-character relationship are briefly explained by presenting examples. Although there are many documents about fruit breeding issues in different titles and in very detailed contents around the world, it is important to present a summary of these issues with Turkish narration for those interested in fruit breeding in our country and to share which fruit breeding subjects are studied.

Keywords: Fruit breeding, Characterization, Molecular maps, Selection, Association maps

DOI: 10.7176/JSTR/6-08-08

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ISSN (online) 2422-8702