Representation of Class System through English Textbooks in Pakistan

Muhammad Asim Mahmood, Sobia Rasheed, Misbah Obaid, Aleem Shakir


Classism is prejudice or discrimination on the basis of social class. It includes individual attitudes and behaviours, systems of policies and practices that are set up to benefit the upper classes at the expense of the lower classes. This study highlights class system in terms of cultural discrimination reflected through English textbooks in Pakistan, where cultural discrimination is described in terms of local and foreign culture in different textbooks taught across the country. The study uses Byram et al. and Resigar’s models to evaluate two textbooks, i.e. Punjab Textbook Board (PTB) and Marshall Cavendish Education (MCE) Language Arts books of grade five to explore cultural discrimination. Drawing results from qualitative analysis, PTB book reflects the local culture representing the lower class, while MCE book reflects the foreign culture representing the upper class, leading our society towards class system in new generation. This class system is creating communication gap among the upcoming generation and giving the concept of upper and lower class. Hence, these two groups are unable to compete with each other in professional lives.

Keywords: Class system, Culture, Textbooks, Punjab Text Book (PTB), Language Arts        (MCE)

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ISSN (Paper)2224-5766 ISSN (Online)2225-0484

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