A Review of the Pedagogical Implications of Examination Washback

Saeed Ahmad, Congman Rao


Tests are the primary source of change in the centralized educational systems. ‘Washback’ is the term used to express the effects of examination or testing on the process of teaching and learning. Till now, much has been said about the pedagogical influences of tests. However, the washback phenomenon is complex in its kind and the researchers have reported a gap between the hypothetical impact of washback and the empirical evidences collected from the ongoing research in this field. This was a review study with the focus to explore the pedagogical implications of washback on the stakeholders.  For this purpose, different definitions of the term ‘washback’ and the like terminologies were elaborated. Secondly it drew on the empirical research taken in this direction. In the end, it suggested to the English language teachers some remedies to avoid negative influences of testing in the light of empirical findings from the previous research.

Key Words?Examination, washback effect, teaching and learning

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ISSN (Paper)2224-5766 ISSN (Online)2225-0484

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