Renal, Cardiac and Osteo – protective effects of beta – sitosterol glycoside in hypertensive rats

C.O. Olaiya, T.O. Omolekan, A.M. Esan, Bukola J. Adediran


Phytosterols are now popularly used as nutraceuticals for preventing, managing and retarding the progression of chronic diseases. Although several experimental studies have shown that β – sitosterol possess cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects in different chronic diseased animal model, there is insufficient information on the biological effects of its conjugated form. This study therefore investigated the renoprotective, cardioprotective and osteoprotective effects of β – sitosterol glycoside (BSSG) in Cadmium Chloride (CdCl2) – induced hypertensive rats.

Renal damage was induced by CdCl2 and the hypertensive groups treated with lisinopril (standard drug) at low dosage and BSSG at both low and high dosage. Serum urea and creatinine were quantified using appropriate standard methods to ascertain the integrity of the glomeruli and determine estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) while serum sodium, potassium, chloride, carbonate levels were assayed for spectrophotometrically to determine the extent of tubular damage and serum osmolarity. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcium levels were measured as markers of bone demineralisation. The effect on lipid profile was also determined, while atherogenic and coronary heart indices were calculated to determine the degree of predisposition to cardiovascular diseases. β – sitosterol glycoside in a concentration dependent manner significantly (p =.05) reduces renal damage markers (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions)), bone demineralisation markers (alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium ion) and markers of risk of atherosclerosis (total cholesterol, triacylglyceride and LDL - cholesterol). The results indicate that β – sitosterol glycoside elicits biological activities similar to its unconjugated form.

Keywords: Cadmium Chloride, hypertensive, renal damage, β – sitosterol glycoside, estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)

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ISSN (Paper)2224-7181 ISSN (Online)2225-062X

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