Bovine Salmonellosis and Its Public Health Importance: A Review

Jemal Adem Ebsa Bushra


Salmonellosis is an infectious disease of humans and animals caused by organisms of the two species of Salmonella (Salmonella enterica, and S. bongori). Although primarily intestinal bacteria, salmonellae are widespread in the environment and commonly found in farm effluents, human sewage and in any material subject to faecal contamination. Salmonella organisms are aetiological agents of diarrhoeal and systemic infections in humans, most commonly as secondary contaminants of food originating from animals and the environment, usually as a consequence of subclinical infection in food animals leading to contamination of meat, eggs, and milk or secondary contamination of fruits and vegetables that have been fertilised or irrigated by faecal wastes. Salmonella passes through M-cells overlying Peyer’s patches or through the epithelial lining of the lower part of small intestine or proximal colon to arrive in the sub epithelial location which is also transported to extra intestinal sites such as the liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Bovine salmonellosis is caused by S. typhimurium and dublin. The disease in cattle is characterized by septicemia, acute or chronic entritis or abortion. Salmonella entrica sub species entrica develop a resistance to multi antibiotics in which results in increasing failure of treatment and severity of infection. Basic hygiene practices and the implementation of scientific based management strategies can efficiently mitigate the risks associated with animal contacts. However, the general public is frequently unaware of the specific disease risks involved and high-risk behaviors are common. The disease can be also controlled by vaccination of cattle.

Keywords:  Cattle; Foodborne; Human; Salmonella; Zoonosis


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