Analysis of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Iodized Salt Consumption Levels among School Children in Amuma and Minjo Districts in Beneshangul Gumuz, Ethiopia

Fekadu Muleta, Girma Kibatu


Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are currently a significant health problem in Ethiopia. Amuma and Minjo districts in Beneshangul Gumuz region are known for visible goiter prevalence. A study was conducted between February 2004 to May 2005 reported the total goiter prevalence (weighed) was 37.3% more than 30% an indication of sever iodine deficiency in the region. Despite some efforts by the government to eliminate IDD through universal salt iodination in public health education, no survey has been conducted on the status of iodine deficiency disorders in the Amuma and Minjo districts. Hence, the present mini pocket study was conducted in order to assess the prevalence of IDD in school children aged 6-18 years and to estimate the iodine content of salt consumed in the households of Amuma and Minjo districts. The proportional to population size (PPS) sampling methodology and indicators for the assessment of IDD as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD consultation was utilized for the survey. A total of 200 school children in the 6-18 years age group were selected using PPS sampling methodology in the schools. Goiter prevalence in these children were tested using palpation method and 50 salt samples consumed in the household  of the respective children were measured for their iodine content using UNICEF/WHO/ICCIDD recommended test kit and titration methods.  A causal urine sample (5ml) was taken from 30 children to measure urinary iodine using spectrophometry. The total goiter prevalence was 39.5% (grade 1 = 31.5% and grade 2 = 7.9%). from 50 salt samples analyzed by salt test kit and iodometric titration 60% of the salt samples iodine level was 0-ppm, 30% had iodine content of less than 15ppm and only 10% was completely iodized ( 15ppm) and the median urinary iodine concentration range from 20.54-62.2(39.9ng/L).  The study showed that the current and up-to-date data on the IDD prevalence in the study population remains iodine deficient. There is a need to further strengthen the existing controlling and monitoring system for the quality of iodized salt distribution public health education in the area in order to achieve the elimination of IDD in the society.

Keywords: Iodine, IDD, School-Children, urinary iodine, iodized salt North Western Ethiopia

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ISSN (Paper)2224-7181 ISSN (Online)2225-062X

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