Peri-Urban Community Perceptions towards Greywater Use: A Case Study of the Kotoko Community in Suame (Kumasi), Ghana

Roland. S. Kabange, Andrews Nkansah


Increasing water scarcity, compounded by population explosion, urbanization and climate change makes greywater (GW) integration into water resources critical.  Resource-rich greywater use (GWU) acceptance can potentially improve not only water availability, but also sanitation, household food security and poverty reduction.  Perceptions however largely determine GWU acceptability.  Though understanding of community perceptions and acceptance of GWU in the largely non-sewered areas of Ghana is a key research area, very little work (if any) is so far done.  Therefore GW studies in Kotoko community were useful to inform GWU promotion and stigmatization reduction strategies in Ghana.  Kotoko community was selected for the study owing to its importance in terms of multi-ethnicity, status and low-income high-density peri-urban community located near Kumasi city-centre (Kejetia).  Out of the community population of 2,230 inhabitants, 128 respondents (or 6% of the population) were interviewed through purposive and random selection.

The questionnaire had three sections: GWU and perceptions, GWU options, and reasons for support.  17 GWU options were divided into three categories: low, medium, and high contact options.  A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to explore data.  Five main GWU practices were reported by respondents – construction industry, toilet flushing, watering gardens, washing and animal drinking.  The results showed fairly positive attitudes towards low contact options, whereas women without formal education were less positive – an interesting finding that linked personal characteristics to attitudes towards GWU.  A “typical objector” to GWU was female aged 10 – 29 years, without formal education, and an ordinary household member.  Public support for treated GWU increased with decreasing degree of contact.  GWU projects were likely to succeed in the Kotoko community if implementation commences in a sustainable way with the low and medium contact options.

Keywords: perceptions, peri-urban, greywater use, community, Ghana

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ISSN (Paper)2224-5790 ISSN (Online)2225-0514

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