Watershed Management, A Tool for Sustainable Safe Reuse Practice, Case Study: El-Salam Canal

Mohamed L. ElKhazragy, Minerva E. Matta, Khaled Z. Abdalla


In Egypt, drainage and irrigation network receives a complex mixture of industrial and domestic effluent. Therefore, water quality was subjected to rapid deterioration over the past decades. A need for using marginal quality water in agriculture for new expansion projects is becoming a great necessity. Good quality water is no longer available for new irrigation projects. One strategy to increase available water resources is to reuse agriculture drainage water for irrigation. Surface water of low quality along with limitation of current water resources was found to be the largest current environmental threat to the drainage reuse practice in Egypt. The detrimental effects of drainage water reuse can be minimized by adopting appropriate pollution sources management. Although domestic diffuse sources represent very small portion of the total discharge in drains, they contribute to a high percentage of organic load to the water system. Lack of investment and time required to execute proper wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), become a constrain impeding the improvement in surface water quality. The proper water quality management system along with good planning for constructing, upgrading and upscaling of WWTPs within a certain watershed can positively improve the water quality at the mixing point with fresh water for reuse. In this study, a practical management tool based on watershed as one of the primer water system unit has been introduced. The tool works under GIS environment to help water managers and planners concerned in irrigation system to incorporate the reuse of drainage water to set best prioritization scenario of WWTPs implementation, upgrading or upscaling within the sub-watershed of El-Serw and Bahr-Hadous drains that feed El-Salam canal. The study is based on analyzing the transport and decay of pollutants expressed as BOD load through network analysis of drains network within El-Salam canal watershed as a case study.

Keywords: Water quality management, Watershed, Drainage water reuse, GIS, Point source pollution (PSP), BOD.

DOI: 10.7176/CER/11-4-06

Publication date:May 31st 2019


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ISSN (Paper)2224-5790 ISSN (Online)2225-0514

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