Key Causes of Variation Orders in Public Construction Projects in South-South Zone of Nigeria: An Explanatory Factor Analysis

Emmanuel Tayo Adu, Samuel, Bassey Ekung, Adeniran Toyin Lashinde


This study investigates the key causes of variation order in public construction projects in the South-South Zone of Nigeria. Primary data obtained from 338 validated questionnaires, administered to stakeholders in the built environment are analysed using mean score and Factor Analysis. The findings reveal that change of plans or scope of work, client`s financial difficulties, inadequate working drawings, inadequate project objectives, errors and omissions in design are the key dominant causes of variation orders in public construction projects. Seven components, which include: client-related, contractor/construction-related, consultant-related, organisational-related, resource-related, environmental-related, and innovation-related, were extracted through factor analysis indicating principal actors and origin of variation orders. It is recommended that stakeholders should give adequate priority not only to the dominant causes of variation orders at planning and implementation stages but also to the principal actors and sources  of the causes in order to strategically address the situation and minimize impact of its occurrence.

Keywords: Classification, Construction project, Principal actors, South-South zone, Variation order.

DOI: 10.7176/CER/12-1-06

Publication date: January 31st 2020

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ISSN (Paper)2224-5790 ISSN (Online)2225-0514

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