Approaches to Issues and Concepts of Heavy Metals in Biochemical and Biosynthetic Pathways

Chrysanthus Chukwuma


The molecular mechanisms in which small molecules contaminate the environment and are etiological agents of perturbative physiological impacts are unknown regarding the targets and mechanisms involved. Potentially hazardous heavy metal levels have permeated and disseminated into subsurface sediment and groundwater in several metal-contaminated sites representing a challenge for environmental restoration. The effective bioremediation of these sites necessitates full knowledge and information of genetic pathways of resistance and biotransformation due to component organisms with a microbial community. Derangement of metal ion homeostasis may result in oxidative stress state whereby elevated production of ROS degrades body-antioxidant shielding and, consequently induces inter alia DNA disruption, lipid peroxidation, protein denaturation or alterations which are pathognomic for several disorders. Although, several metals are essential for microbial function, the heavy metals present toxic effects on cellular metabolism, biochemical and biosynthetic pathways.

Keywords: heavy metals, biosynthetic pathways, toxicity, remediation, microorganisms

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3208 ISSN (Online)2225-093X

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