Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Antibiotics Resistance Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Clinical Samples at The Nairobi Hospital, Kenya.

Celestin NIBOGORA, Andrew K. NYERERE, Caroline W.Ngugi, Paul MAKAU


This study was financially supported by the research grant from Government of BURUNDI.


Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat worldwide. The present study aimed to determine the molecular basis of antibiotics resistant characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Identification of Clinical isolates and detection of Beta lactamase enzymes with their antibiotic susceptibility pattern was done by automated VITEK 2 system. The distribution of genes was assessed by PCR method. The resistance rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to antibiotics was 100% to Ampicillin. Among 272 isolates, ESBLs were seen in 81(29.8%) isolates, carbapenemases were seen in 19(7.0%) isolates, ESBL and carbapenemases co-existed in 14(5.1%) isolates, AmpC and carbapenemases co-occurred in a 5 isolates (1.8%), 7 (2.6%) isolates produced ESBL + AmpC+carbapenemases,2 (0.7%)showed ESBL +AmpC  producers. None of the isolates showed AmpC production alone. The occurrence of TEM, SHV and CTX-M was 5.77%, 1.92% and 2.88% respectively. The combination of TEM/CTX-M, SHV/CTX-M, TEM/SHV, TEM/SHV/CTX-M, TEM/SHV/CTX-M/OXA48 genes was carried by 4.81%, 8.65%, 13.46%, 52.88% and 9.62% respectively. The distribution of KPC and OXA-48 genes was 24.4% and 62.2% respectively. VIM and IMP were not detected. The presence of beta lactamases complicates treatment option; hence their prompt detection is critical to patient’s wellbeing.

Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Resistance, Antibiotics, Beta lactamases, Co-existence, ESBLs genes, Carbapenemases genes.

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3208 ISSN (Online)2225-093X

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