Assessment of National Natural Resources Policies Implementation in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Richard Y.M. Kangalawe, Verdiana T. Tilumanywa, Felician S.K. Tungaraza, Martin Mlele, Godwin Naimani


The Kilimanjaro landscape provides a range of ecosystem services such as water, local climate modification, tourism and support of local livelihoods. Land degradation has, however, seriously threatened the landscape ability in providing these services, leading to decreased land productivity This paper is based on a study conducted in Kilimanjaro region to provide an understanding of how effectively natural resources-related policies are implemented by land users, and how they practically guide sustainable land management. Data collection involved interviews with purposively selected progressive farmers using a structured questionnaire, in-depth interviews with key informants, mainly district officials, NGOs and CBOs representatives and focus group discussions, as well as review of relevant literature. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, while qualitative data were triangulated using content analysis. Findings indicated that there are several policies related to natural resource management that are both cross-cutting and cross-sectoral in nature. While majority of respondents were aware of the various policies, male respondents were more aware than females, influenced by customary male dominance in natural resource issues. The policies are implemented at various levels, taking different forms and involve various stakeholders, including individuals, groups, NGOs, CBOs and public institutions. Generally, communities are actively participating in SLM activities though influenced by several pull and push factors in policy implementation in the area. The paper argues that for effective implementation of the natural resources policies there is a need to review and harmonise the sectoral policies with changing internal and external conditions such as economic transformation, globalization and climate change.


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ISSN (Paper)2224-3216 ISSN (Online)2225-0948

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