Hydrochemical Characteristics of Water Quality Around Nkalagu Area, Southern Benue Trough, Nigeria Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis

I. M. Onwe, B. E. B. Akudinobi, G. O. Otosigbo, K. A. Ifeanyichukwu, I. A. Amoke


Hydrochemical characteristics of water quality around Nkalagu area has been studied and characterized using multivariate statistical analysis. Eighty water samples were collected in the area from spatially referenced boreholes, hand dug wells abandoned mines, catch pits and rivers located in and around the Nkalagu area and were analyzed for EC, pH, TDS, TH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42- and Fe2+ according to EPA and APHA standards. Based on mean values, the order of abundance in ions is Cl- > HCO3- > SO42- > NO3-, for anions and Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2 - > K+, for cations. TDS and Salinity hazard classifications characterized the water in the study area as soft to very hard with low to very high salinity hazard. Principal component analysis (PCA) reduced the hydrochemical data into two principal components which explain 78.553 %, of the total variance that characterize the water quality in relation to the source of its hydrochemistry. Cluster analysis (CA) grouped eighty water samples in the area into eight clusters of similar water quality characteristics related to water-rock interaction, agriculture and anthropogenic sources. Discriminant analysis (DA) showed that the discriminating parameters of water quality in the area are EC, TDS, TH, SO4, Cl, Mg, Ca, Na, and HCO3 and this revealed that water quality in the area is controlled by both geogenic and anthropogenic processes.

Keywords: Water Quality, Multivariate analysis, cluster analysis, principal component analysis

DOI: 10.7176/JEES/9-11-07

Publication date: November 30th 2019

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3216 ISSN (Online)2225-0948

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