Provenance Evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. in Lai Birr Farm (Jabe Tahinan District) Western Amhara Region

Abraham Demekristos


The experiment was conducted in Jabe Tahinan District 5 year old, from year 2008 to 2012 West Gojam Zone, Lai Birr Alamudin Farm, is located in northwestern part of Ethiopia. This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the adaptability and characterization of provenances from oil content point of view and selecting appropriate provenances for the trial site agro ecological condition.Six provenances of Jatropha curcas from different agro-climatic locations of Ethiopia(Mersa, Metema and Shewarobit) and three introduced from abroad(Mexico, India and Tanzania) were grown in randomized block design; that differed in morphological characteristics, were studied. There is no significant differences, (P>0.05) occurred among the provenances for growth performances (height and diameter increment).  At present the effect of spacing, canopy management and crown form and surface on the yield is not known, but there were no significant differences among parameters crown diameter, primary and secondary branches as well as inflorescence numbers and yield.Seed yield of the provenances ranged from 215.0 to 1164.0g/plant with an average of 556.0gm/plant, indicating varietal difference among means.In general the study revealed that considerable variations existed among provenances for except collar & crown diameter, and 100 seed weight means. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in seed oil yield among provenances (accessions). The top ranking oil yielder: Mexico (A1) closely followed by Shewarobit & Metema differed significantly with all the remaining provenances. The LSD test also revealed that maximum collar & crown diameter, fruit and seed yield/per plant were important oil yield parameters. Selection of these characters may help in indirect selection of high oil content yielding provenances.Maximum 100 seed weight was recorded in seeds collected from Tanzania (C1) and the least weight was recorded in India (B1) and Metema. The maximum oil yield obtained from Mexico (A1) provenance was 45.67% with high fruit and seed yield/plant, collar and crown diameter attributing parameters. Therefore, from test results, it can be used A1, Shewarobit and Metema for establishment of seed orchard and delivered to end users for successful use of biodiesel production, respectively. In addition, the results may trigger interested farmers and other stakeholders for cultivation of J.curcas. But much more research is required on propagation, quality of planting material (potted or bar root or direct planting), amount and frequency of irrigation, type and amount of fertilizers, spacing, pruning, diseases and insect pests identification, control measure for powdery mildew and termites attack should be devised soonest to realize full potential yield of J.curcas and training needed for oil processing.

Keywords: Jatropha curcas, %, growth parameter, morphological character, provenances

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