Distribution of HBs Antigenaemia in Pregnant Women-A Community Based Epidemiological Studies

NDAKO, James A, ONWULIRI, Edith A., BANDA, Jim M, DAHUNSI, S.O, DOJUMO, Temitope V.


Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious public health problem worldwide and leads to a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic carrier state to acute self-limiting infection or fulminant hepatic failure, chronic hepatitis with progression to cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Transmission of HBV from carrier mothers to their babies can occur during the perinatal period, and appears to be the most important factor in determining the prevalence of infection in high endemic areas. Three hundred (300) sera samples were screened among pregnant women attending a rural ante-natal clinic, using standard ELISA and the 5-panel test methods to estimate the prevalence, Markers and identify risk factors associated with the infection. Structured questionnaire was administered to subjects to obtain risk factors associated with the Hepatitis B Virus. Result showed a prevalence of 38 (12.6%) among the pregnant women screned.Based on Age, subjects aged 20-24 recorded the highest prevalence of 14(4.7%) years, closely followed by those aged 15-19 with a prevalence of 10(3.3%) This Prevalence on age of subjects in this category was found to be statistically insignificant P>0.005. Subjects at the second trimester of pregnancy recorded a higher prevalence of 34(11.3).P>0.005Seroloical markers showed; 28 (9.3%), 35 (11.6%), 5 (1.7%), 33(11.0%) and 20(6.7) for HBsAg, Anti HBs, HBeAg, Anti HBe and Anti HBc respectively (P< 0.005)}. The findings showed a high prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women. Screening of women in this category therefore would help in the early detection of HBsAg and possible prevention of neonatal transmission; hence the need for routine antenatal screening of all pregnant women.

Keywords: Screening, HBsAg, Hepatitis B markers, Pregnancy.

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