A Review on Immunotherapy against Cancer

Minda Asfaw Geresu


We reviewed cancer immunotherapy which means the modulating and using of the patient’s own immune system to target the cancer cells rather than using an extrinsic means of therapy. Cancer immunotherapies can be classified as either passive or active. It can also be further divided into nonspecific and specific types. The use of immunostimulants, non-specific approach, for cancer therapy is one of the earliest approaches in immunotherapy that aims to enhance the activity of the lymphocytes that are already attacking to the tumour cells but are insufficient to produce a full-powered immune response. In this review, radioimmunotherapy (coupling a radioactive atom to a monoclonal antibody (mAb)), immunotoxins (generated by coupling plant-derived or bacterial toxins to mAbs), antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (an antibody is used as a vector to transfer an enzyme) and immunomodulators were among the discussed approaches to use mAbs as an anti-cancer. A new and promising immunotherapy that is especially highly effective against metastatic melanoma, Adoptive cell therapy (ACT), and different cancer vaccines were also reviewed in detail.
Keywords: Adoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Cancer Vaccines, Immunostimulants, Monoclonal antibodies

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