Risk Factors for Congenital Heart Diseases in a Group of Children in Holy Karbala Governorate/IRAQ

Mohammed Khawwam Abdulwahid, Zuhair Omran Easa, Abdulabbas Abduon Hadi, Nabil Fahim Abdulrazzaq


Background: Prevention of congenital cardiovascular defects has been hampered by a lack of information about modifiable risk factors for abnormalities in cardiac development. Over the past decade, there have been major breakthroughs in the understanding of inherited causes of congenital heart disease (CHD), including the identification of specific genetic abnormalities for some types of malformations.

Aim of study: To investigate some of the risk factors and their significance in the development of congenital heart diseases among children in Holy Karbala governorate.

Methods: A case control study was done on pediatric patients with a confirmed diagnosis of congenital heart disease from January 2012 to January 2013 in Karbala Pediatric Teaching Hospital. A total of 212 patients, 106 cases and 106 controls were included in this study.

Results: maternal age<20 years represent 4.7 % of cases, while those above 30 years of age represent 37.7 % of cases. Paternal age >40 years found in 37 cases (34.9 %) and 24 control (22.6 %). full term gestation found in 91 cases and 101 controls.  Residency in urban area found in 84 % of cases and 75.5 % of controls. Consanguinity was positive in 37 cases (34.9 %) and 18 controls (17 %). Second birth order and more found in 81 % of cases. Family history of congenital heart disease was positive in 11(10.4%) cases and 2 control (1.9%). Winter months' conception found in 44 cases (41.5%) and 21 control (19. 8%).low social class found in39 cases (36.8%) and 17 control (16%).isolated VSD found in 29 % of cases for whom consanguinity was positive in 9 cases and negative in 21 cases.

Conclusion: Analysis of our results showed that paternal and maternal age, urban residency, winter month’s conception, low socioeconomic status, being 2nd borne or more and positive consanguinity are independent risk factors for CHD.

KEY WORDS: CHD, pediatric, risk factors, Karbala.

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