Seroprevalence of Hyperglycaemia in HIV Positive Patients Visiting the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital in Ghana

Rachel I. Tetteh-Attaah, Ebenezer Aniakwa-Bonsu, Faustina Pappoe, Emmanuel Diabor, Kwabena Dankwa, Samuel V Nuvor


Background: Hyperglycaemia is a metabolic syndrome and common endocrine disease where there is increased blood glucose level. It can result in long-term damage and failure of different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels and finally cause death. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hyperglycaemia in HIV subjects visiting the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH), Cape Coast and its relationship with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART).  Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out and blood samples of 120 HIV positive subjects of age groups ranging from 2 to 74 were collected for screening and confirmation after an informed consent was obtained from them. The blood glucose level was then tested using OneTouch glucometer and test strips.  The results were analysed using chi square goodness-of-fit and cross tabulation.  Results: A total of 9 patients out of the 120 HIV subjects had an increased glucose level, giving a prevalence rate of 7.5%. They were within the ages of 20-60 years and were significantly lower compared to those without hyperglycaemia (p<0.05), those married (p=0.001) and those divorced (p=0.001).  There was an inverse relationship between the period of living with HIV and the high glycaemia status (r= -0.949, p=0.017). There was also an inverse relationship between the use of HAART and high glycaemia status (r=-0.071, p=0.0028). There was a significant number of participants, who were experiencing increased thirst (p=0.003). Also a significant number of participants experienced increased hunger (p=0.010). Conclusion: The study revealed that there was hyperglycaemia among the study population. This may be reduced during therapy and changes in their lifestyle. Regular monitoring of glucose level in HIV infected patients and counselling on lifestyle changes are recommended.

Keywords: Seroprevalence, hyperglycaemia, HIV

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