Synergistic Effect of Xylopia Aethiopica Seed Extract and Ciprofloxacin on Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi

Regina E. Amadi, Bright, Chukwuebuka. Unaeze, Chinwe C. Ejike


This study was carried out to evaluate the synergistic effect of Xylopia aethiopica seed extracts and Ciprofloxacin on Salmonella enterica serover Typhi. Egg white portion of raw egg was aseptically collected with sterile syringe and was plated on Salmonella Shigella agar (SSA), incubated at 370C for 24 h. The test organism was characterized and identified using their colony descriptions, morphology and biochemical characteristics. The phytochemical constituent of the seed extract of Xylopia aethiopica were determined quantitatively using spectophotometric method. The antibacterial activity of the seed extracts was carried out using agar-well diffusion method. Tube dilution method was used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) using double-fold serial dilutions at concentrations 25 mg/ml to 400 mg/ml. The synergistic activity was carried out by exposing the test organism against 0.1ml of equal volume of aqueous seed extract of Xylopia aethiopica and Ciprofloxacin (EEXA + CPX), and ethanolic seed extract of Xylopia aethiopica and Ciprofloxacin   (AEXA + CPX) at the same concentration (400 mg/ml). The phytochemical analysis of Xylopia aethiopica seed extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, phenolics and tannins. Ethanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica showed more activity (15.50 mm) than the aqueous extract (6.50 mm) and their activities differed significantly (P<.0.05) from that of the Ciprofloxacin (18.00 mm).There wassynergistic effects on EEXA + CPX (24.50mm) and AEXA + CPX (21.00mm).  The MICs and MBCs values of the extracts and their combinations revealed significantly the inhibitory and cidal activities. The study suggest that the combination of the seed extracts of  Xylopia aethiopica and Ciprofloxacin could perform better in management of typhoid fever than monotherapy, and ethanolic extract combined with CPX proved to be most effective.

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