A Systemic Review of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Adults and the Clinical Management of Diagnosis and Treatment

Mohammed Owaid O. Alshammari, Mahdee Hemaidan M Albeqami, Alhashim, Jehad Nizar A, MASOUD BASHEER O ALSHAMMARI, ALDAWUDI ISRAA KADHEM A, Mohammad J M S Alhashan, Hassan Abdullah Essa Al Busaysi


Iron deficiency is the most frequent cause of anaemia worldwide. It impairs quality of life, increases asthenia and can lead to clinical worsening of patients. In addition, iron deficiency has a complex mechanism whose pathologic pathway is recently becoming better understood. The discovery of hepcidin has allowed a better clarification of iron metabolism regulation. Furthermore, the ratio of concentration of soluble transferrin receptor to the log of the ferritin level, has been developed as a tool to detect iron deficiency in most situations. Therefore, the problem of this research lies in exploring the cause of iron deficiency that always be sought because the underlying condition can be serious. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding diagnostic algorithms for iron deficiency anemia. The majority of aetiologies occur in the digestive tract, and justify morphological examination of the gut. First line investigations are upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy, and when negative, the small bowel should be explored; newer tools such as video capsule endoscopy have also been developed. The treatment of iron deficiency is aetiological if possible and iron supplementation whether in oral or in parenteral form.

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