Review on Malaria and Antimalarial Activity of Vernonia Amygdalina in Ethiopia: A Review Article

Temesgen Bihonegn


Malaria is a mosquito borne infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium. Humans are mainly infected by P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. Around 44% of world’s population is at risk from malaria. Malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. The clinical features of malaria vary. The most characteristic symptom are fever, headache, lassitude, loss of appetite, muscle pain and chills, resulting in uncontrollable shivering with teeth chattering. Diagnosis of malaria is achieved by light microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests, polymerase chain reaction. Management of malaria includes general measures to be taken to save life of the person and prevention of recrudescence using drugs and other supportive measures. Parasite resistance to antimalarial medicines is a major threat to achieving malaria control and eventual elimination. The most important problem associated with the management of malaria are resistant to or is developing resistance to the most widely available, affordable and safest first line treatments. Prevention of malaria includes vector control to disrupt transmission from mosquito to human, prevention of infection and treatment after infection. V. amygdalina commonly called bitter leaf in English and ‘Girawa’ in Amharic. V. amygdalina has antimalarial properties and the aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves exhibit antimalarial activity on P.falcifarum, P.vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. Malaria is one of the life-threatening diseases. Moreover, Vernonia amygdalina can be used for the treatment of malaria in rural communities.

Keywords: Antimalarial activity, Ethiopia, Malaria, V. amygdalina.

DOI: 10.7176/JHMN/60-01

Publication date:March 31st 2019

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