Cognitive Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome

Wajeeha Abdul Ahad, Fazaila Ehsan, Noreen Fatima, Faiza Yousaf, Rabia Qamar, Ambreen Sadaf, Sehar Ashraf


This study is designed to determine the cognitive impairments in individuals with Down syndrome. This study was conducted in September to November 2014. Sample of 30 patients was taken by using purposive sampling technique within three months. Observational and Cross-sectional study design was used. This was a hospital-based study in which patients with Down’s syndrome between the age range of 5-18 and both genders were included. A structured questionnaire was developed that was based on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development to assess the cognitive abilities by assessing tasks related to developmental ages. Out of those 30 patients 15(50٪) were male and 15(50٪) were females. Most of the patients were found in age range of 5-10 years according to frequency 16 (53.3٪) followed by 10 (33.3٪) patients in 10-15 years and 4 (13.3٪) in 15-20 years. The preoperational stage of cognitive development showed that the girls were more impaired. Pretend-play (boys (50%), girls(46.7%)),Centration(boys(40.%), girls(33.3%) and irreversibility boys (50%) girls(40.%) are the aspects in which boys were tending to show better than boys. In concrete operational stage and in formal operational stage both genders were tending to show equal impairments in their cognitive aspects. In the children with Down syndrome it is observed that there is high frequency of cognitive impairment and girls are more cognitively impaired than boys. While the tasks which require more accuracy and intelligence such as reasoning, meta-cognition, inductive and deductive reasoning are rarely present in both genders.

Keywords: Down syndrome, pre-operational, concrete-operational and formal-operational.

DOI: 10.7176/JHMN/71-12

Publication date: February 29th 2020

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