A Health Production Approach to Bone Health in Kenya

Thomas Mutinda Muthama, Stephen Kyalo Mutiso, Daniel M. Munguti


Reduced density and quality in bones increase fracture risk, which becomes evident later in life through recognition of osteoporosis which is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, pre-disposing to an increased risk of fracture and is a global health problem that affects men as well as women. Shocks are inevitable to everyone everywhere and in the wake of shock of chronic/severe illness like Corona virus (Covid-19) which is infecting and affecting individuals worldwide and countrywide; the response may be negative or positive. The negative responses acts like additional shocks, hence focus will be on the positive responses (good reports) which are meant to counter the shocks and improve individuals and consequently household’s welfare. In some cases covid-19 results to death of a household member, this calls for immediate response to the shock. During the outbreak of corona virus, many individuals have lost their employment and at such a time when loss of salaried employment or non-payment of salary results, individuals may need to respond to the shock positively. A time like this the health care facilities are overstrained with many hospitalizations as a result of day to day increase in the shocks (corona virus) and its associated shocks like loss of employment and death. Likewise, the governments’ curfews have made individuals to experience business failure, limit their movements, reduce physical activity, and change their food and nutrition and as a result may affect their health outcomes. This study sought to establish the determinants of bone health, based on the health production approach by isolating the effects of response to shocks, and food and nutrition on bone health. The current study found that good report (positive response to shocks), exercising (through use of non-motorized transport), completing secondary education, taking wine, consuming fruits like apples, pineapples and melons and vegetables such as lettuce, cucumber and courgette, and increased consumption of peanut butter, tinned fish, and minced meat, chocolate and cheese significantly helps in improvement of bone health as they reduce bone fracture. However, bad reports deteriorate bone health, increased consumption of bread and corned beef significantly depletes bone health as they increase the occurrence of fracture. This study recommends that in order to improve individuals’ bone health there is need to convey good reports especially during shocks like Covid-19. Individuals who have experienced non-agricultural household business failure due to the outbreak of corona virus, they need not to give up but ought to respond by starting a new business. For improved bone health, individuals also need to continually exercise by using non-motorized means of travel like walking or cycling; they may need to take a little wine especially as their age increases; and strengthening their bones through increased consumption of apples, pineapples and melons, lettuce, cucumber and courgette, peanut butter, tinned fish, and minced meat, chocolate and cheese.

Keywords: Bone Health, Health Production, Corona Virus, Covid-19, Response to Shocks, Food and Nutrition

DOI: 10.7176/JHMN/85-15

Publication date: January 31st 2021

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ISSN 2422-8419

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