Does Nepal’s Climate Change Adaptation Policy and Practices Address Poor and Vulnerable Communities?

Krishna R Tiwari, Santosh Rayamajhi, Ridish K Pokharel, Mohan K Balla


Climate change (CC) impact, adaptation practices and policies are an emerging area of research and development in Nepal. Many households were deeply affected by, climatic variability and natural disasters coupled with a decade-long conflict, leaving them with few options to cope with CC in Nepal. The study was done through reviewed CC related policies and programs initiated at the national to local level.  Additionally, study was conducted to analyze different CC adaptation programs and practices in different eco-region from Himalaya to Inner Terai region of center and western Nepal through shared learning dialogue, field observation, key informant interview, regional and district level consultative workshop and focus group discussion.

To address the issues of CC, different government and nongovernment institutions have initiated its adaptation programs in Nepal. NAPA and LAPA- Nepal highlighted the adaptation practices and adaptation framework from national to local level. These national programs initiatives have been endorsed by the GoN (Government of Nepal) through the promulgation of CC Policy Nepal 2011.  The policy has focused on interdisciplinary approach with 80% funds allocated at the local level particularly for poor and vulnerable groups. Some district level offices have initiated CC adaptation activities such as construction of water harvesting pond for irrigation, water source protection, agroforestry practices and training on CC adaptation and mitigation. Similarly, in some project supported districts, community level and VDC level five year local adaptation plans have been prepared. However, it is observed that there is a big gap in institutional arrangement, capacity to implement and mechanisms for adaptation programs at local level and poor communities. It was also observed that different GOs programs and NGOs were involved to improve the livelihood of the poor and vulnerable communities through pro-poor programs at local level which resulted improve CC adaptation capacity. It is suggested that CC policy in Nepal be formulated with holistic approach, institutionalized implementing mechanism and focus on livelihood improvement of the poor and vulnerable communities that have joint environmental, social or economic benefits.

Keywords:  Community, Institutions, NAPA, no-regret approach, LAPA, Livelihood, Vulnerability

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3240 ISSN (Online)2224-3259

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